Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a generic term describing a system that uses radio waves to identify an object or person. There are three fundamental components in a passive RFID system: a passive RFID tag, an RFID reader, and a database. A passive RFID tag is a battery-less device that consists of a radio antenna attached to a microchip which stores a unique identifier (i.e. a unique number). An RFID reader is a device equipped with one or more antennas that emit radio waves and receive signals back from nearby passive RFID tags. Specifically, an RFID reader’s antenna emits radio waves that energize one or more passive RFID tag(s) in front of that antenna; that energy is in turn used by those tag(s) to send their unique identifier(s) back to the antenna. Finally, a database in an RFID system contains a table that maps tag identifiers to information about the tagged items. The database also contains the list of all tags detected by antennas and the time when they were detected.
The following components are required to write data (encode) to class 1 tags:
Software Application > Encoder Software > Tag Encoder > RFID Tag
The following components are required to read data from the tag:
RFID Tag > Reader, Interrogator or Access Point > Decoding Software > Software Application